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First Discovery of CRISPR[edit]

Summary: a University researcher Yoshizumi Ishino in 1987 accidentally cloned part of a CRISPR together with the iap gene, the target of interest. This is the first recorded instance of CRISPR. Source: Nucleotide sequence of the iap gene, responsible for alkaline phosphatase isozyme conversion in Escherichia coli, and identification of the gene product. Y Ishino, H Shinagawa, K Makino, M Amemura, and A Nakata

Characterization of CRISPR and its function[edit]

1993 - 2005 - - Francisco Mojica, University of Alicante, Spain. Notice how the several journal articles published on this topic are not located here, instead they are on a separate topic page: Characterization of CRISPR He coined the term CRISPR

He coined the term CRISPR through correspondence with Ruud Jansen, who first used the term in print in 2002. In 2005 he reported that these sequences matched snippets from the genomes of bacteriophage (Mojica et al., 2005). This finding led him to hypothesize, correctly, that CRISPR is an adaptive immune system. Another group, working independently, published similar findings around this same time (Pourcel et al., 2005)

Mojica, F.J.M., D ez-Villase or, C.S., Garc a-Mart nez, J.S., and Soria, E. (2005). Intervening Sequences of Regularly Spaced Prokaryotic Repeats Derive from Foreign Genetic Elements. J Mol Evol 60, 174–182.

Discovery of Cas9 and PAM[edit]

May, 2005 — Alexander Bolotin, French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA)

"Streptococcus thermophilus, DNA has an unusual CRISPR locus (Bolotin et al., 2005). It lacked some of the known cas genes and instead contained novel cas genes, including one encoding a large protein they predicted to have nuclease activity, which is now known as Cas9. Furthermore, they noted that the spacers, which have homology to viral genes, all share a common sequence at one end. This sequence, the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), is required for target recognition."

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